+65 6466 7957 / 96
  +65 6466 5927
CWA > Resources > Editorial - Caregiver's Corner

Editorial - Caregiver's Corner

Strength Within, Care Beyond – Staying physically strong as a caregiver

Staying physically strong as a caregiver is of utmost importance as it directly impacts one's ability to provide optimal care and support to your loved ones. Caregiving often involves physically demanding tasks, such as lifting, transferring, and assisting with daily activities. Maintaining physical strength and endurance enables caregivers to perform these tasks with ease, reducing the risk of injury to themselves and the person under their care. Physical strength also contributes to better mental well-being, as it promotes confidence, resilience, and a sense of accomplishment, which are crucial in navigating the challenges and emotional strain that can come with the role. Ultimately, by prioritizing their physical well-being, caregivers can ensure they are better equipped to provide the highest level of care, maintain their own health and well-being, and sustain their commitment to their loved ones. Here are some tips that can help:

1.      Caregiver training

If you’re new to taking care of your loved ones, attend caregiver training sessions to understand the proper ergonomics of caring for your loved ones. These caregiver training sessions are designed to equip you with the necessary techniques to perform caregiving tasks safely. One of the key aspects is proper body mechanics and lifting techniques that minimize strain on your back and reduce the risk of injury. Learning how to maintain a stable base of support, use your leg muscles instead of your back when lifting, and distribute weight evenly can significantly decrease the pressure on your spine and minimize the likelihood of sustaining musculoskeletal injuries. Additionally, caregiver training sessions can provide insights into assistive devices and tools that can aid in caregiving, such as transfer belts, lifting aids, or adjustable beds, which further enhance safety and reduce physical strain.

2.      Address the aches and discomforts that you have first - See a physiotherapist

Caregiving often involves repetitive motions, prolonged periods of standing or sitting, and physical exertion, which can put significant strain on your muscles and joints. Neglecting these aches and pains can lead to further discomfort, decreased mobility, and even chronic conditions. A physiotherapist specializes in assessing and treating musculoskeletal issues, offering targeted interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, and prevent further injury. They can identify the root causes of your aches, whether it's poor posture, improper body mechanics, or overuse, and can provide personalized treatment plans to address your specific needs. Physiotherapy may include manual therapies, therapeutic exercises, stretching routines, postural correction techniques, and ergonomic recommendations tailored to your caregiving tasks. Under the guidance of a physiotherapist, you gain knowledge about self-care strategies, including exercises and preventive measures, to manage and prevent future musculoskeletal issues. Taking care of your own physical well-being is essential as a caregiver to ensure you can continue providing the best care for your loved ones without compromising your own health.

3.      Unlock your joy in motion - find an activity that you like!

The key is to identify an activity that brings you joy, relaxation, and a sense of rejuvenation. Some caregivers find solace in activities like meditation or yoga, others enjoy engaging in workouts such as running, swimming, or pilates, as they release endorphins and provide a natural boost to mood. Finding an enjoyable activity to destress as a caregiver is crucial to avoid burnout. Prioritizing self-care allows you to recharge, reduce stress, and maintain emotional well-being. By making time for yourself and engaging in activities that bring you joy, you can better manage caregiving challenges and sustain a healthier and more balanced caregiving journey.

4.      Making it sustainable - Every effort counts!

Choosing a physical activity that you enjoy will increase the likelihood of you making it a long term habit. Ensure these activities fit into your schedule. If you find this challenging, choose specific days and times that work best for you and commit to sticking to them. Start small and gradually increase the duration and intensity over time. Find an exercise buddy that shares similar fitness goals . This will make exercise more enjoyable and help you stay accountable. You can motivate and support each other throughout the journey, making it more sustainable.  Also, be flexible - There may be times where it may be difficult to stick with the routine. Instead of giving up entirely, find alternative ways to be active, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator or doing a quick home workout. Remember, consistency is key when establishing an exercise routine.

Debra (1).png

Ms Debra Ow
Senior Physiotherapist  
Altum Physio Pilates Pte Ltd 


Mobilising Shared Family Support in Caregiving of Older Adults


Caregiving demands can impact the quality of family relationship which include sibling relationships and relationship between the adult children and their older parents. Have you ever wondered how is it that in some families, despite the demands in caregiving, family members are able to rally together and work things out for their loved ones while in others, the responsibilities of caregiving are seen as burden and being pushed around? Family disagreement and conflict do arise due to many reasons including differences in opinion on how the caregiving tasks should be undertaken, issues of equity as in how the tasks should be more fairly divided and the roles of individuals in managing care. While disagreement is normal in human interactions, how should family members build and maintain quality of relationships so that they can collectively play a part in shared caregiving responsibilities? This article provides insights on how the strengths of parent-child and sibling relationships can impact caregiving of older adults and shares how family members can harness the strengths of members in caregiving support.

Who is considered family?

Very often when we think of family, we tend to focus on the nuclear family; that is the parents and their children living under one roof. However, we find that the model of the nuclear family is less applicable with emerging phenomenon of divorce, remarriages, singlehood, single parenthood, and couples opting not to have or have fewer children. The familial structures in later life stage are a result of life course transitions by family members and it reflects the forms of diversity in society. The definition of family membership should hence be broadly embraced to include active participants who are children, nieces, nephews, siblings, aunt, uncle, and cousins.  In some contexts, individuals consider their closest friend as “family”. In taking a broader perspective on the definition of family, we would not be too microscopic in having missed opportunity for support from someone who acts as family and not be too fixated in forcing the older adult to rely on an unreliable family member simply because he or she qualifies as closest ties (biologically or legally) in the definition of a family.

What is the state of family relations in society?

Research has shown that intergenerational ties and relationships remained strong and cohesive in societies[i]. Despite structural changes in family structures, intergenerational family relationships remain intact with evidence of frequent interaction and exchanges between parents and adult children[ii]. Family relations in the East Asian cultures embrace obligation, reciprocity and reliance and family care is much a preferred option by family members[iii]. This is because family care enables older adults to maintain social connections with their loved ones and it also preserves a sense of dignity for them.

In Singapore, the family remains a key source of support for physical, financial, and emotional support for older members. In a 2019 Social Attitudes of Singaporeans survey conducted by the Ministry of Social and Family Development, 93% of persons aged 65 years and above reported having a close-knit family[iv] demonstrating a strong sense of closeness to their family.  97% of the respondents also agreed it is important for grandparents and their grandchildren to maintain close ties with each other. This signals the importance held by the older persons on building and maintaining intergenerational ties. It is noteworthy that 96% of respondents aged 15 to 64 years old agreed that it is their duty to take care of their parents regardless of their qualities and faults; highlighting that filial responsibility remains strong in local context.  The strengths of families are valuable resources to be tapped for the caregiving journey of older adults.

How does the state of parent-child relationship impact caregiving of older parents?

We can take a life course perspective to better understand how family relationships are formed and shaped over time and the impact on caregiving. The dynamic interaction between parents and children from growing up years will have a lasting impact on parent -child relationships and how future interactions are formed[v]. Adult children formed their perceptions and interpretations of the relationship through time, and this will have implications on how they construct the meaning of intergenerational reciprocity and their obligations in caregiving. When the children enjoy close relationship with their parents, they are driven by an innate desire to reciprocate their filial obligations[vi]. Conversely, when there are unresolved conflicts and distant parent-child relationships, there will be an adverse impact on perceptions of caregiving for the older parents.[vii] However, research has also alluded that adult parent-child relationships have the potential to change and adjust over time[viii].  This means that there is need to invest in building and maintaining good parent -child relationships even in situations where life events happen such as divorce. Building parent-child relationships could take simple forms such as having meals together, going for outings or celebrating special occasions.

Parents should be mindful to not get caught in having a preferred child syndrome in the parenting journey as this will have detriment effects on relationships within the family.  The “preferred child” is one whom the parents dote on and treat better than other siblings. Parental favouritism can lead to conflict and unhappiness amongst siblings and negatively impact how respective adult children perceive caregiving for older parents[ix].

How does the state of sibling relationship impact caregiving?

The state of sibling relationships and their emotional closeness have a significant bearing on how caregiving is negotiated for older parents[x]. Emotional closeness enables siblings to enjoy interdependent relations that are nurturing and constructive. The nurturing of sibling relationship in early life is important as research showed that when the sibling bonding is strong, even if they do not maintain physical contacts or spend as much time together due to changes in life cycle, their commitment remains, and the relationship still exists in their minds[xi]. In close sibling relations, negotiating caregiving for older parents will be much on a “give and take” basis and willingness to embrace greater responsibility in caregiving. Conversely when sibling relations are strained or distant, the notion of fairness will take centre stage in caregiving negotiation which can lead to resentment when caregiving tasks are not meted out equitably[xii].

How should we manage conflicts in the family?

It is normal for conflicts to arise in human relations. What is important is not to let the interpersonal conflicts remain unresolved, breed unhappiness and destroy relationships that have been built over years. It is critical to listen actively, talk things out calmly and find common goals that parties could collectively work on.  If need to, tap on the extended family network by asking a respected member to mediate the situation.  Families can also consider tapping on formal services like the Family Service Centres to seek support and advice from social workers on how best to address the conflictual familial issues.  By keeping the unhappiness to ourselves and not addressing them can lead to resentment and prolonged anger and impact our health and mental well-being. Family relations that are so precious in human relations will also be destroyed.

How can we harness the strengths of family in caregiving?

Caregiving can be a shared family responsibility if members discuss and negotiate on how caregiving decisions and tasks could be made and carried out with the best interest of the older member in mind. Rather than based on the principle of equity, the sharing of caregiving responsibilities can be based on the strengths and abilities of members. Simply put, do what you are good at and contribute positively. Let me illustrate this using the case of the Lim family on how the members successfully negotiated a shared care plan for their terminally ill mother.

The Lim family

The Lim family has 3 adult children (2 daughters and 1 son). The older parents reside with the son and a daughter, both single, in a 5 -room HDB flat. The eldest daughter is married and staying apart. The family was devastated when their mother (aged 72) was terminally ill with cancer.  They huddled together for a family meeting with the father and shared their views of how they should care for mum. They decided to ask mum as they felt that she has the right to know and to make preparations to live life meaningfully. Mum expressed her wishes to remain at home till her end of life and told her children to be strong as death would strike everyone someday.  It was initially hard for the adult children, but mum’s acceptance of her end stage of life gave the children strength to move ahead to support mum’s wishes to be cared for at home. Together with their father, the siblings discussed how they could put in place a shared care plan bearing in mind mum’s condition would deteriorate over time. The shared care plan included the following:

·      The family obtained a referral from the doctor to apply for home hospice services so that they could be supported in the caregiving journey. Under the service, a nurse would visit mum at home and advise the family on managing her medical conditions including pain management. If need to, the family can gain easy access to the doctor from hospice care for advice. This will cut down multiple visits to the hospital for follow up.

·      A joint bank account was set up by the son and daughter and all three siblings agreed to collectively contribute a sum so that they could tap on the funds for mum’s medical and other expenses. The son would issue a monthly statement of account to update siblings on the spending and the need to top up the account.

·      A WhatsApp chat group was formed to facilitate communication and for members to update information and to ask for help if issues arise.

·       The son volunteered to fetch mum to visit some relatives and close friends as mum said she would like to get in touch with them soon. He would also help mum run errands etc.

·      The daughter who is married and staying apart, is self-employed and has some flexibility in managing her time. She offered to support mum in her personal care which include support in bathing and dressing especially when her condition worsened.

·      A neighbour was engaged to help cook porridge for mum during the day.

·      Dad would help mum with her medication and meals.

·      The siblings contacted their maternal aunt (mum’s younger sibling) and mum’s close friend to visit mum occasionally during the weekday so as to keep mum company when all siblings are at work.

·      The daughter residing with mum would take care of dinner when she returned home from work.

·      A part-time helper was engaged to help with housework chores.

·      The siblings would gather over the weekend and have meals with their parents.

·      The siblings had a deal that if there were concerns and unhappiness, they should voice out and talk over it.

Subsequently as mum’s condition deteriorated, the family had to adjust the care plan and intensify their care for mum. Mum finally passed on peacefully at home. The siblings and father drew on one another for support during the difficult period.

What are the factors that contribute to a successful shared family care plan?

The caregiving journey is by no means easy as the siblings have to manage work and their caregiving tasks. Also, differences in opinion could arise resulting in conflict. The Lim family managed to pull through caregiving successfully due to the following key factors:

·      The parent-child relationship is strong. Mum’s resilience and her advice to her children to accept that death is imminent in turn helped the children to better cope with the situation and get their act together.

·      Mum’s wishes and opinion were heard, and she could express her desire of how she wanted to live life at end stage.

·      The siblings’ relationship was close and there was open communication. By incorporating in the shared care that the siblings would proactively share any unhappiness and concerns and that this would be heard respectfully, it addresses potential problems that may arise due to personal grievances.

·      There is “give and take” attitude amongst siblings as they drew on their own strengths and resources to contribute to caregiving. Flexibility was exercised in adjusting the care plan and there was willingness of siblings to extend a helping hand when the need arose.

·      The family was resourceful in tapping on informal network of support like asking the neighbour and aunties for support.

·      The tapping on formal services like home hospice care and housekeeping services helped alleviate the stresses in caregiving.

Concluding Remarks

Family relations is central in human relationships. Attention needs to be paid to managing the intricacies of parent-child relationship as this has an impact on the extent of fulfilment of filial obligations by adult children in later life. The building of close sibling relationship has a bearing on interdependency and how decisions are made on shared caregiving responsibilities.  The maintaining of emotional closeness will go a long way to preserving sibling relations which are key resources for the family. It is important to recognise that conflict is normative in human relations. Hence there is a need for families and individuals to manage their familial issues which is critical to the investment of building strong family ties.


UNG_3365 - Copy 2.jpg

Dr Corinne Ghoh
Adjunct Associate Professor
Department of Social Work
National University of Singapore 

[i] Lowenstein, A.(2007) Solidarity-conflict and ambivalence: Testing two conceptual frameworks and their impact on quality of life for older family members. Journal of Gerontology: Social Services, 62B(2), S100-S107; Silverstein, M. & Giarrusso, R. (2010), Aging and family life: a decade review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(5), 1039-1058.

[ii] Lowenstein, A, (2005). Chapter 5.1 Global ageing and challenges to families, In M. Johnson (Ed).  The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing: Cambridge University Press; Reisman, D. (2009). Social policy in an ageing society: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

[iii] Izuhara, M. (2010). Housing wealth and family reciprocity in East Asia. In M. Izuhara (Ed). Aging and intergeneration relations. Family reciprocity from a global perspective. UK: The Policy Press.

[iv] Ministry of Social and Family Development. Ageing Families In Singapore, 2010 – 2020. Insight Series Paper 01/2022.

[v] Kuczynski, L. (2003), Beyond bidirectionality, Bilateral conceptual frameworks for understanding dynamics in parent-child relations. In Kuczynski (Ed). Handbook of dynamics in parent-child relations: Sage publications.

[vi] Ghoh, C. (2016). When ambivalence and legal responsibility crossed: examining and theorising adult children’s perception of caregiving for elderly parents. PhD thesis. Department of Social Work, National University of Singapore.

[vii] Ghoh, C. (2016). When ambivalence and legal responsibility crossed: examining and theorising adult children’s perception of caregiving for elderly parents. PhD thesis. Department of Social Work, National University of Singapore.

[viii] Duck,S. (1994). Meaningful relationships. Talking, sense and relating: Sage Publications.

[ix] Ghoh C. (2016). When ambivalence and legal responsibility crossed: examining and theorising adult children’s perception of caregiving for elderly parents. PhD thesis. Department of Social Work, National University of Singapore.

[x] Connidis,I.A, & Kemp, C.L. (2008). Negotiating actual and anticipated parental support: multiple sibling voices in three generation families. Journal of Aging Studies, 22, 229-238.

[xi] Rittenour et. al, (2007). Commitment and emotional closeness in sibling relationship. Southern Communication Journal, 72(2), 169-183.

[xii] Connidis,I.A, & Kemp, C.L. (2008). Negotiating actual and anticipated parental support: multiple sibling voices in three generation families. Journal of Aging Studies, 22, 229-238.


Self-Love is Selfless

Caregiving is a very noble role and duty that a person can perform for another as it benefits people who are unable to take care of themselves due to age or sicknesses. Yet many caregivers forget and forgo their own needs when taking care of others. This is one of the problems with people who has great empathy for others. Self-sacrifice is often mistaken for doing good for another person. Yet that is one of the acts of harm towards a human being – the caregiver himself.

Taking care of oneself is of utmost importance in caregiving. This is because by taking care of yourself, you keep the source of support ongoing for the other person who is dependent on you on a long-term basis. Only when one is safe and fine can one then go take care of others. This is like the scenario on airplane when one should put on their oxygen masks for themselves first then attend to help others. If the caregiver collapse, no one will be able to help those in need of assistance. Self-love in caregiving is not selfish. It is selfless.

So here I will share with you some self-love tips for caregivers that should be practiced often to keep the physical, mental and emotional health of caregivers in check:

1.     Eat healthy meals regularly

Caregiving is hard on the body and mind so it is important to keep the body and mind healthy by reenergizing yourself with nutritious meals. Include lots of fruits and vegetables which will help to boost your immunity.

2.     Keep hydrated

Keeping yourself hydrated help to keep your mind clear and keep the body as detoxified as possible. You may be tempted to go for caffeinated drinks or sugary drinks to give you the surge of energy but try to refrain from that as it will cause you to have energy dips later. Plain water is by far the best option!

3.     Sleep and rest regularly

Rest is important to keep your immunity in check. So try to get enough sleep and rest  as much as possible. Naps are also highly recommended.

4.     Cater time for exercise

Exercise is crucial for stress release. Try to cater at least 15 minutes daily for simple exercises like taking walks in nature or some indoor exercises to get your heart and lungs pumping.

5.     Ask for help

Learn to ask for help from family and friends. People are often very eager to help during difficult times. Accept the support that is offered by your friends and family. If you feel that you need to, have the courage to speak to a counsellor or a spiritual advisor.

6.     Give yourself a break

Give permission to yourself for your own me time, away from the bedside of your loved one. This is especially important when you are feeling overwhelmed or exhausted.


Dr Lim Xiang Jun.png

DR Lim Xiang Jun  林香均  博士

Senior Consultant TCM Physician

PhD. Acupuncture/Chinese Medicine
BSc.(Hons) Biomedical Science 
Specialised Aesthetic (Face/Pelvis) Osteopath
Metaphysics (Bazi/Fengshui) Practitioner
Somatic Yoga & Meditation Teacher
Non Linear Movement Method® Teacher
Wild Woman’s Circle™ Teacher
Intimacy & Polarity® Teacher
Reiki, Ayurveda Practitioner



Why You Should Be Engaging Home Therapy For Seniors

Picture 1.png

Why You Should Be Engaging Home Therapy For Seniors

Healthcare for seniors can be challenging. As time goes by, their capabilities might decrease, and their level of care may increase.

Sure, outpatient clinics and nursing centres may help to address these accommodations. But many are also turning to a more convenient and efficient option: home therapy for seniors looking to recover at their own comfort.

What is Home Therapy?

Home therapy refers to rehabilitative services that take place in the comfort of their homes. As opposed to a clinic or a centre, the therapist travels to the patient to extend their services and support them in their recovery.

Similar to a session in the clinic, the in-home therapist provides services to:

      Find out your rehabilitative needs through an assessment. This may include some functional tasks as well to determine the severity of your condition

      Design a personalised recovery plan set to your condition and recovery goal

      Recommend modifications that may help you around the home

      Work with your family members or caregivers to manage issues or challenges that may impede your recovery

      In many cases, treatments may involve active exercise or equipments that may be provided during sessions

Home therapy can be just as effective as clinical visits. In fact, a 2016 study found that 44% of long-term care recipients opted for home therapy services, illustrating the growing popularity of convenient healthcare.

Types of Home Therapy

There are three main types of home therapy services that seniors can engage in. This includes:

Occupational Therapy

This type of rehabilitation focuses on treating people to develop, maintain or recover their capacity to manage daily living activities. For example, people who need assistance eating, bathing or walking can benefit greatly from an occupational therapist. Aside from treatment, they may suggest alternative methods to perform the task, or assist with strategies on improving the patient's environment.

Recommended for: People requiring assistance to regain independence with daily living at home and return to work

Speech Therapy

For seniors who suffer from debilitating conditions such as stroke, speech therapy can be incredibly helpful. Aside from increasing functional communication, speech therapists also work with their patients to retrain oral muscle strength. This helps with drinking and swallowing as well.

Recommended for: People with speech disorders, troubles understanding language, and problems with eating & drinking


Physical therapy focuses on developing mobility and increasing physical capacity. It also helps with improving stability and strength, improving function in all stages of life, and encouraging independence. Through the use of exercises and therapy aids, physiotherapists empower seniors to improve their balance and safety, restore their activity levels, and slow down the functional effects of aging.

Recommended for: People with all types of activity-limiting conditions or recovering from surgery and acute / chronic injuries

Picture 2.png

Benefits of Home Therapy for Seniors

Many people have found that engaging an in-home therapist can prove to be advantageous. Here are some of the key benefits of engaging home therapy for older patients.

Higher Quality of Care

Therapists in busy outpatient clinics may sometimes be overseeing a few cases at the same time. Seniors who opt for in-home therapy get to enjoy more attentive one-on-one care services.

The best part is that it is just as effective, if not more, than clinical treatments. A study found that home-based rehab programs proved to be as effective as care provided in clinics. In fact, some found that in-home plans were more intensive and focused due to the level of personalised care.


This would probably be one of the biggest advantages of home therapy. Besides having to take time off from work, commuting to and from appointments can be a hassle. For seniors with mobility issues, it can also be an additional source of stress. In such cases, home therapy can prove to be the more prudent service.

Comfort and Familiarity

It is widely agreed that a healing environment is necessary for optimal patient recovery. Seniors may struggle with the clinical environments that tend to be noisy, harsh and confusing. An in-home service can make the process a lot less stressful for them, as they focus more on their own recovery.

Having therapy in the home environment also allows seniors to learn rehabilitation exercises using common household items. This further promotes accessibility and compliance to a home exercise programme.

Sustainable care

Rehabilitation isn't a one-and-done deal—it requires consistency. An in-home therapist will be able to assess and ensure that your environment is more sustainable and risk-free for long-term care and safety.

They would also be able to translate the rehabilitation routine according to the home environment. This makes it more practical and safer for older folks to follow through.


Home therapy can also invite family members and caregivers to lend their support in the recovery process. Those working from home may also find it easier to be part of the care process and stay in the loop with new developments. The additional presence and participation of their loved ones could also be useful in keeping seniors motivated towards improvement.


For elderly patients experiencing limited mobility or chronic medical issues, in-home therapy services may be the best solution. Effective, accessible and functional, it simplifies the recovery process in a familiar environment. At the same time, patients are encouraged towards a higher quality of life by making use of their known environment to be more independent.

To read more health-related content from Rehab & Beyond, please click HERE.


Mr Shirouz Elango
Health Content Coordinator at Rehab & Beyond


Finding Our Anchor Amidst Caregiving Anxiety

Anxiety often sneaks in amidst our caregiving. Naturally, we want to provide the best care for our family member. As a result, we want to be on top of the many tasks and errands. We find ourselves multi-tasking, monitoring in detail the care for our loved ones and identifying possible emergencies that may arise. Before we know it, we find our mind churning worries. Unknowingly, anxiety has joined us in our caregiving journey.

As caregivers, we also adapt to our loved one’s illness progression. Our loved ones may have new symptoms that require us to change the way we care for them. We may need to change their diet or activities. We may be more involved in helping them with their daily activities like moving about, showering etc.  These constant changes are uncertain and contributes to caregivers’ anxiety.

Having been a caregiver to both my parents for the past 17 years, I had fair share of experiences with caregiver anxiety. In my clinical work with caregivers, many have also struggled with anxiety related symptoms like difficulty sleeping, irritability and panic. Fortunately, there are ways we can tap into to manage our anxiety better. Here are some strategies adapted from psychological interventions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy that may be helpful for you:     

1.       Identify What You Are Most Anxious About

              Often times, we feel anxious because we are overwhelmed by many issues that we have to handle. All issues seem urgent and important. The issues seem impossible to manage.

One helpful way is to slow down, give ourselves space to take a moment to ask ourselves what we are most anxious or concern about amongst the varied issues. Once we identify what we are most concern about, it’s like hitting the bull’s eyes of the target, we can identify effective actions to manage the core issue. Once the core concern is managed, the other concerns will seem more manageable.   

Earlier in my caregiving journey, I felt stuck and helpless about how to care for my father with dementia and Parkinson’s Disease. I worry he will fall when he gets up in the dark at night. I worry if I leave the lights on it will affect his sleep. As you can see my worries snowball and I was actually not problem solving. Only when I identify that my core issue was safety for him in the middle of the night, was I able problem solve that I could get motion activated lights for him.

2.       Realistically Estimate The Probability

              When we are anxious, we tend to overestimate the negative consequences. We underestimate our ability and resources to cope. When we are anxious, we may also overestimate the probability of the negative consequences happening.

If we ask ourselves about the odds of the negative consequences happening, we may realize that it is not as high as we thought. This does not mean that we do not take any actions to manage the situation, it just free us from excessive anxiety, puts things in perspective so that we are in  a better position to problem solve.

A caregiver I work with was worried about her mother losing her way and not able to find her way home. However, when we realistically evaluated her situation, her mother had a helper and other family members who looked after her. It is unlikely that she will be venturing out alone. This helped to allay her anxiety. Nonetheless, we still help her to explore how she could register her mother  with  a digital platform to ensure safe return for her mother should she wonders about alone.

3.       Focus On Solving, Coping, Accepting

              When we are anxious, we tend to focus on the problem. As the problem becomes the spotlight, it makes it difficult for us to engage in effective problem solving. Instead, our mind will generate more and more negative consequences and more problems. Focusing on what steps can be taken in the direction of solving the issue. If it cannot be solved, focus on what can be done to help you cope better. Or, focus on what you need to help you accept the situation better. 

              A caregiver shared with me that she was initially very anxious about how to manage her father’s incontinence. She feels torn about using diapers. Eventually she tried to solve her father’s issues of wetting himself by using diapers when they go out. If they are at home, she tries not to use diapers and she also copes with it by monitoring the time that her father typically needs to go to the washroom. She will remind him every few hours to go to the washroom. To help herself accept the situation better, she mentally prepares herself that despite all she does, he may still wet himself sometimes due to his condition.

 4.       Identify Who Can Help You

Sometimes we get anxious because we get stuck in coming up with solutions and feel the situation cannot be changed. It may be helpful to seek help from others to brainstorm for possible solutions. You can seek the advice of medical professionals. You could take references from other caregivers by joining support groups, activities or online platforms.

To experience anxiety in caregiving is normal. But that does not mean that we cannot do anything about it. Managing our anxiety puts us in a better position and frame of mind for caregiving. 


Mr Lew Yuen Foong (Henry)
Registered Psychologist and Approved Clinical Supervisor 
(Singapore Psychological Society)


Why Caregivers Need Mindfulness

When my grandmother was diagnosed with advanced dementia, my family and I unexpectedly fell into the role of being her primary caregivers. We spent a good number of years scrambling to meet the needs of our loved one, whose illness brought about a 180-degree change in temperament. 
Before her dementia set in, my grandmother's demeanor was mostly gentle and calm. She enjoyed gardening, cooking, and making traditional Teochew kuehs for her children and grandchildren. 
When her memory began to falter, she lost all interest in what she used to love doing. Over the course of two years, her illness took over, and we witnessed the once-placid old lady become highly anxious, agitated, and angry. She was severely underweight, yet embodied the physical strength that the entire family collectively could not handle. On top of having to deal with her constant screaming and increasingly violent tendencies, as caregivers who took turns watching her round the clock, we often found ourselves exhausted, confused, and feeling helpless. 
In the midst of her illness, I had just embarked on my journey of learning mindfulness, and I consider our family extremely fortunate to have had the practice and skills of mindfulness at hand to support us through the seemingly endless days of caregiving.  
Caregiving can be an overwhelming experience, which drains us physically, mentally, and emotionally. Sometimes there seems to be no end in sight, thus leaving us feeling depressed, anxious, and hopeless. Caregiver burnout is a very real phenomenon, with our determination to persevere and devotion to care giving way to resentment, withdrawal, and even numbness and apathy. When there is no other option but to keep going, sustainability becomes the key to navigating some of the most stressful and difficult moments that may come our way. 
Mindfulness has indeed received much attention over the past decades, in large part due to strong research evidence on its efficacy in improving our personal effectiveness and quality of life. Mindfulness can be integrated into the caregiver's life as a proactive and preventative approach to our health and wellbeing. Research has shown that practicing mindfulness consistently and effectively improves our focus, reduces anxiety and depression, as well as hones our ability to manage stress, build resilience, and prevent burnout, so that we can not only take good care of ourselves, but also improve our quality of care for the people who need us. 
Caregiving is a highly emotional experience, especially when we are taking care of our loved ones. When we meet with difficult and intense emotions such as sadness, anger, or grief, and when negative thoughts hijack our mindspace, they can quickly overwhelm and even debilitate us. Having mindful awareness of what is arising within the mind helps create space between ourselves and our experience, so that we can step back and see our thoughts and emotions more clearly, understand that they do not need to consume us, and learn to work with them. 
The role of caregiving also encourages us to neglect our physical health and overwork our body's capabilities for the wellbeing of someone else. When we practice paying attention to our body, our attention becomes a physical barometer that offers us a better understanding of what the body is experiencing in each moment, and whether we should take rest or seek medical attention for ourselves.
These skills of self-awareness and self-observation are what we need to keep a gentle watch over our own mind and body, and remind ourselves to take a pause when necessary, so that we can return to a state of balance, before moving on again from a better place. 
Mindfulness also lays the groundwork for cultivating self-compassion, which is the willingness to turn our attention towards our own struggles and suffering, and attend to ourselves with more gentleness and kindness. Many caregivers are also living with feelings of guilt and the perception that they are never doing enough. With mindful self-compassion, we will be better able to mitigate any unnecessary thoughts of self-criticism and self-judgment, and learn to embrace our limitations and award the necessary care for ourselves.
One of the more surprising discoveries of mindfulness is that when practiced regularly, it not only benefits our emotional and mental health, but also our physical health as well. Studies have shown that mindfulness improves our sleep quality and strengthens our immunity, thus making us more physically resilient as caregivers. 
The most important insight I have gained from my ongoing mindfulness practice is that having a purely intellectual understanding of mindfulness is definitely not enough. We should see mindfulness as a set of skills that we need to develop in order to reap the benefits of this wonderful practice. It is not difficult at all to get started with mindfulness, and for a beginner, a little practice every day goes a long way. 
As we persist in our learning and practice of mindfulness, and as we improve our capacity to attend to the present experience, we will eventually be able to witness positive shifts in how we navigate our caregiving journey. 

Click the link below for more info.
Caregiver support group


Ms Erin Lee
Founder and Mindfulness Coach of Mindful Moments Singapore
Certified Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Teacher
Professional Certified Consultant in Stress Management

About the Author
Erin Lee is Founder and Mindfulness Coach of Mindful Moments. She is dedicated to supporting individuals and communities in improving their mental health and wellbeing, and developing skills of mindful awareness and self-regulation for better resilience, mental flexibility and emotional balance, through the integration of attentional skills in both personal and professional lives.

Erin founded Take A Pause, a regular online mindfulness practice community, as well as co-initiated The Big Sit, a global community that inspires the use of urban spaces for the collective practice of mindfulness and the fostering of good mental health.

Erin works with organizations to design and introduce mindfulness-based initiatives and interventions as a preventative approach to mental health, as well as encourage a culture of wellness at the workplace.

Our Legacy

They say the two occasions where one gets to meet everyone in our family network are weddings and funerals. When I was younger, it seemed like every year we will all congregate at some wedding banquet and catch up with relatives and guess who is next to walk down the aisle. Those were happy celebratory moments.

As a sign of the times, and how rapidly our generation is aging, these days I am more likely to meet relatives at a funeral wake. The topic of conversation often relates to what next for the family members and this is where it dawned on me that as much as we prepare for the welcome home of a new-born baby, we often neglect the preparation for our eventual demise.

This was particularly pertinent when the caregiver passes on before the one who is being cared for. We all assume that as caregivers we will outlive our loved us, unfortunately Life is not always so predictable and throws us curve balls.

This is not the most comforting topic to talk about, but it is a practical reality for every caregiver to plan for especially if your loved one has special needs. As I was doing my research, it became evident that death and estate planning can be a complex tedious affair if we do not prepare for it.

Supporting our loved ones financially after we are gone

Funeral wakes are busy times for the immediate family, it invokes a conundrum of emotions, stress and fatigue. I am particularly concern about the caregiver for whom the loved one is totally dependent on, what happens when the caregiver passes on? The responsibility has to shift to someone else, and in some instances to institutional care as a last resort. As uncomfortable a topic to talk about death, it is nevertheless crucial for all caregivers to make estate planning for their loved ones as the next phase of care.

There are practical steps we can take to ensure that our financial assets can be liquidated to support our loved ones after we are gone.

i.                     Every Singaporean has a sum of money in their CPF and Medisave account, this is perhaps one of the more accessible funds to disburse after our demise. The important point is to make a CPF nomination to your loved one so that these funds can be disbursed directly to the nominee.

ii.                   Make a will. Consider this the caregiver’s ‘to-do list’ for the assigned person(s) of how to carry on looking after your loved one. It is similar to how we prepare for a long journey where we leave behind instructions for someone responsible to take over.

iii.                 You are the best person to draft this list of instructions and it will also give you peace of mind that no matter what happens, or when it happens, your loved one will be well taken care of according to your care-plan. We should not assume that any family member will know what to do in your absence. I have personally witnessed family conflicts when well intentioned motives are misunderstood simply because nobody knew what exactly was needed.

iv.                 Look for resources how to do estate planning, and a good reference can be found at the government website aptly named as my legacy (

What happens next after I am gone?

I have started to ponder on this during my quiet time, for many of us who have dependents, their lives carry on, it is in our innate nature to want to ensure that our surviving family and loved ones make the transition to the next phase of their lives as stress free as possible. For them they have to face the inevitable grief that comes with the demise of their caregiver.

We can alleviate the stresses that may come later, by ensuring that we have left sufficient instructions both in legal documentation as well in personal written form so as that whoever takes over the role as the next caregiver understands our loved one’s needs as well as we did.

Caregiving is a journey, that journey will end someday, let us ensure that when our caregiving journey ends, the next leg of that journey continues seamlessly for those we love and care for the most. 


Dr Daniel Tan
Board Member 
Editorial Sub-Committee: Editor-in-Chief
Caregiving Welfare Association


Keeping Wellness in Check!

Caring our dependent loved ones at home is already a massive task in normal days. Caring our dependent loved ones during a pandemic can sometimes be the last straw to break the camel’s back. Caring our dependent loved ones in a pandemic that has lasted the past 2 years, I am at loss for words at what all these caregivers have been through.

Not only the fear of getting ourselves Covid, and thus unable to care for our dependent loved ones, many caregivers fear their love ones, already being high risk group for infectious disease, might one day get infected.

As a long-term care physician, I have heard many of these worries and sometimes cries for help. To be resilient in such a difficult period, sometimes, caregivers should focus on their own mental and physical well being in order to tackle the whole situation at hand.

Wellness is not something that is a given, when nothing is happening in one’s life. Wellness needs to be pursued, maintained, and practiced.

There are 7 dimensions of wellness, namely physical wellness, emotional wellness, intellectual wellness, social wellness, spiritual wellness, environmental wellness and occupational wellness.

I will be mentioning on 2 of these 7 dimensions which are affected greatly by this pandemic.

editorial pic 1.jpgIn midst of the current pandemic, social wellness has taken a big hit, due to the many social restriction policies and social distancing campaigns from many governments. With technology, smart phones, WIFI, 5Gs and many other modern services, the word ‘social distancing’ has been a terrible choice of the message given to the masses. Physical distancing and social integration should have been the focus.  

Caregivers should as far as possible, maintain good social interaction through technology use, from the everyday phone calls to tele-presence robotics. ZOOM meetings has replaced many traditional company meetings, hence, Tele-gatherings should be made more available and get caregivers more involved in such tele-support groups.

Social wellness should be maintained, if not enhanced for all the caregivers during the course of this current pandemic.

The next wellness will be emotional wellness, which can be very fragile in the midst of this pandemic. There are many restrictions and caregivers are often very afraid of any quarantine orders, which will fracture the already difficult care system in place for their loved ones.

There are definitely many ways to reduce to the stress and anxiety for caregivers. Seeing a wellness coach or attending yoga sessions will be great, if time can be afforded. However, most of the time, caregivers are too busy with day-to-day requirements and the caring work that no much time is given to personal wellness practices.

Hence, new solution such as digital apps like InMIND will be interesting to patch the gap up on supporting caregivers in maintaining their wellness. InMIND can track the stress level of the caregiver just by downloading an app from the smart phone. After tracking the level of stress, using editorial pic 2.jpgA.I. algorithm, it will recommend an in-app management plan for the caregiver to follow. In this way, caregiver can be reminded to do wellness practices daily and as and when needed. It is a digital “band aid” for stress.

Caregiver Welfare Association will be trialing such cutting-edge solution this year as well for her members.

Taking time daily to do some wellness practices not only benefit the caregivers, it will also benefit the care recipients as well. In fact, both caregiver and care recipients can be doing such wellness practices daily to maintain mental well-being in these uncertain times.

In Summary, care givers need to keep their own welfare and mental wellness in check first, being they can give proper good care to their loved ones. Without a strong emphasis of personal wellness, it will be difficult to enjoy the journey of caregiving to our very most loved ones.

Photo of Dr Tan Jit Seng.png

Dr Tan Jit Seng
Board Member (Co-opted)

Caregiving Welfare Association
Founder and Director for Lotus Eldercare Health Services.


Letting Go


The year is coming to a close and 2021 has been a difficult year for many, especially with the pandemic still swirling around us and the rollercoaster up and down social restrictions. In short it was a messy year. 

As is usual for this time of the year, I get into the habit to declutter my office and home so that whatever I don’t need can be ‘upcycled’ or ‘recycled’. It is a way to literally make space for what is to come. But as I get into the actual work, I find it is not as easy as just sorting, packing and removing. Even simple things like giving away clothes gives me cause to pause and defer some clothing pieces because of sentimental reasons even though physically I have outgrown them (that’s a nice way of saying I have grown fatter and can’t fit into it).

What is holding me back? The hesitancy to let go is driven by emotional attachment, but the more I hold onto it, the more clutter accumulates and eventually there is little space to take on more.

What is the relevance of this to caregiving you ask, it reflects about us as a person and regardless whether we are the caregiver or the one being cared for, we all have to let go some things in life so that we can make space for change, embrace new things and experiences.

Letting go to move ahead
To all the caregivers who may read this, there is only so much time and space in your life to juggle multiple responsibilities. If we keep adding more work, pressures build up and very soon it spills over, no different from the earlier example of decluttering a wardrobe. The hardest part is deciding what to let go and what to keep. Everyone has different priorities in life, and home situations are different so the intention here is not to prescribe what to do, but rather what steps we can do to move forward.

Letting go of physical barriers
This is probably an easier objective to assess and make changes, if the daily caregiving tasks are physically strenuous because the chair or bed transfer requires heavy lifting, perhaps its time to let go of old furniture and have it replaced with more ergonomic appliances. There is an inherent stubbornness in all of us to grow attach to our favourite sofa, but just as some of my elderly family members realized they needed help to get up, it took considerable persuasion for them to accept that a high chair is what was needed to enable a more comfortable sitting position and best of all they did not have to rely on someone to help them get up from the chair. I consider this a small victory, but every little bit helps.

Letting go of guilt
All too often I hear the repeated excuses that caregivers give that they feel obligated to sacrifice their own happiness because of the guilt they feel leaving their loved ones behind. 

This is a mindset that needs reframing, your respite from caregiving duties does not equate to abandonment of your loved ones. Let go of the personal guilt, free yourself of this and one will find more space and capacity to go further on this caregiving journey. The pandemic has exacerbated the isolation for many people and this has caused friction and fractured family relationships. 
Individual self-care is even more important right now and we cannot emphasize the benefits of just saying ‘I need my time and space, I still love you and my world involves both of us, but right now this time it is about me’. How many of us are prepared to say this without guilt, if you can, you have taken the first step to empty out the inner guilt and you are ready take on the next tasks with renewed energy.

Letting go of the past
The reason why all of us suffer from some degree of hoarding is that we are unable to let go of the past. There are some items that should be retained and that is what we need to discern, but holding onto too many items makes our lives messy. We need to do periodic spring cleaning and re-organisation, so as to increase our memory space, and these memories become richer in the longer term and are more easily retrievable. 

Eventually the day will come when caregiving responsibilities end because the ones we were looking after have passed on. That day should be the transition to begin the next chapter of life and we have to let go of the past to move forward. 

The analogy is like taking a long nature walk, the path is uneven, there will be obstacles to climb over, the journey is long, but along the way if you stop and silence your inner thoughts, you will hear the wind rustling the leaves, see the birds flying from tree to tree. When you look back you will have seen how far you have gone and as you look ahead at the trail you do not know what to expect, it will be uncertain and the natural tendency is for us to continue walking forward not backwards. 

I have gone through my own personal journeys and key criteria is always travel light if you are embarking on a long travel, the more baggage we bring along, the harder the journey will be. As the new year dawns on us, my wish for everyone is let go of negative emotions, tidy up your physical environment, it takes both physical and mental housekeeping to prepare you for the caregiving journey ahead.

Happy New Year 


Dr Daniel Tan
Board Member and
Editorial Sub-Committee: Editor-in-Chief
Caregiving Welfare Association


CWA Caregivers' Week 2021 - 'Finding Resilience in Caregiving'

caregiversweek-banner2021 (1).gif

A very warm welcome to CWA Annual Caregivers’ Week 2021!

Despite the current challenging COVID-19 situation, our efforts and indomitable spirits have enabled us to push forward and persevere in our mission in advocating support for caregivers. 

This year is our 6th year holding Caregivers’ Week, which will be held from 1 to 7 November 2021 with the theme 'Finding Resilience in Caregiving'. CWA believes in the potential mental ability that caregivers have in them to adapt and overcome difficult situations that would help to manage their emotional stress better throughout their caregiving journey.  

The campaign’s objective is also to raise public visibility on caregiving through our webinar series: 'Dedicating to Self-Care', where our invited guest speakers will share useful tips and resources, as well as interactive virtual workshops to be held over the week-long campaign that will help caregivers to look after themselves while taking care of their loved ones. In organising these activities, we hope to achieve greater public awareness on the important role caregivers play in helping their loved ones to lead a fulfilling life. 

When we look around us, there may be some of us caring for someone or vice versa; it could be an ageing parent who needs a little more help, or someone who has illness that needs to be taken care of. Therefore, caregivers are everywhere in our community - be it our family members, friends, and neighbours. 

With an ageing population, we will be depending even more on family caregivers to provide care for our loved ones. The enormous pressures and risks that come along with caregiving - burnout, emotional stress, and depletion of financial resources - are a reality of daily life for family caregivers. These pose an immense strain on them, many of whom are struggling to balance between work and family responsibilities. Therefore, it is important to understand the need to promote the awareness of caregiving – for caregivers to also better understand themselves.

Through this initiative, I hope that the community can come together and be part of CWA Annual Caregivers’ Week 2021 and celebrate the spirit of caregiving to show that caregivers are being valued and recognised. Together, we will forge a new path of positive change of caregiving in our community and I sincerely hope that all of you will benefit from the various activities organised specially for you.

Finally, allow me to extend my sincere appreciation to each and every one of you, who in one way or another has contributed to our CWA Annual Caregivers’ Week 2021.

Thank you and stay safe!

Dr Tan Hong Yee_CWA.jpg

Dr Tan Hong Yee
Caregiving Welfare Association


5 Sleep Mistakes You Don’t Know You’re Making and How to Fix Them!

Sleep has been overlooked for many years ever since the invention of the artificial light by Thomas Edison. Modern day society tends to prioritise work, leisure and travel rather than sleep. Most recently, Singapore made the world’s headlines by being the most fatigued country in the world. So, what are we doing wrong when it comes to sleep? For starters, these are the most common sleep mistakes. 

Not to worry, we have included sleep hacks that you can implement right away if you are guilty of making these mistakes.

1.   Using your gadgets before bed

At least 95 percent of people use some kind of electronic device — TV, a computer, a phone or a tablet — within an hour of bedtime, according to the National Sleep Foundation. However, these gadgets emit blue light which will inhibit the production of melatonin, the sleepy hormone to help you fall asleep and stay asleep.

Solution: Make sure you have a power down hour. Try to avoid using your gadgets at least 1 hour or 30 mins before bedtime. 

2.   Drinking caffeine and having midnight snacks

Caffeine is a stimulant and it can affect your sleep. It has a half-life of 6-8 hours. So, make sure you try to avoid caffeine-consumption after 2pm so it doesn’t disrupt your sleep at night.

Refined sugars and processed food can stress the organs in charge of hormone regulation - causing you to wake in the night as your levels fluctuate.

Solution: Snack on foods that contains tryptophan. This amino acid is needed by the body to produce serotonin, which in turn makes melatonin.

3.   Sleeping at odd hours

A lot of people often sleep at irregular hours but studies have shown that the timing of sleep matters, and it’s best to sleep as much as possible during hours of darkness. 

Sleeping at night helps align the body’s circadian rhythm or internal clock, with its environment. Proper circadian timing is critical for sleep quality and affects mental health, cardiovascular function, metabolism, and other key elements of overall health.  If you always sleep at different hours, you are severely disrupting your body clock and that’s not a good thing in the long run.

Solution: Go to bed at the same time and wake up at a fixed time whenever is possible. It will anchor your sleep and improve the quantity and quality of your sleep. The reason is that deep within your brain, you have a master 24-hour clock. It expects regularity and works best under conditions of regularity and controls your sleep/wake schedule.

4.   Sleeping too hot

Part of the body’s process of falling asleep is reducing its temperature. So, if the room is too hot, you will find it uncomfortable and will have a hard time falling asleep.

Solution: Keep the room cool and well ventilated. Your brain and body needs to drop the temperature by 1 degree Celsius to fall asleep and stay asleep. It’s easier to sleep in a room that’s too cold than too hot. About 18 degree Celsius is what the experts recommend, but if you find it too cold, anything between 20-25 degree Celsius is also acceptable.

5.   Stop saying you can't sleep!

If you don’t think you are a great sleeper, then you won’t be one. It’s just how it is. If you keep stressing about sleep, then you are just reinforcing that mantra in your head and turning it into a reality when bedtime comes.

The more you stress and worry about having just the right sleep routine or following the rules so exactly, the tougher it is for your body to relax, which is what triggers all the internal chemical processes in the brain and the rest of the body that initiate sleep.

Solution: Relax, meditate and pray. Jump into a better relationship with sleep. Listen to your body and have a positive loving relationship with sleep. 

Zoe Chu_Apr 2021.jpg

Author: Zoe Chu
Founder of Your Sleep BFF


Behavioural Strategies To Manage Pain

pexels-matthias-zomer-339620_cropped 2.jpgWe may experience aches and pain in our body from time to time when we overwork or overtax ourselves. We may also experience pain due to an injury or a medical condition. And as caregivers we may also experience pain when we overstrain ourselves while helping our loved ones.

Managing pain is important. Pain can be physically and mentally draining, contributing to becoming burnt out from caregiving. Pain can also affect our attention and concentration, and consequently our ability to care for our loved ones.

Our first response to pain is to try to eliminate it. We rest or seek medical treatment for it. However, at times, the aches and pain returns. And unfortunately for some of us, the pain may be consistently there.   

You probably have tried different ways to manage the pain e.g., Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Physiotherapy etc. Did you know that psychological methods can be added to your bag of tools to manage pain? While psychological methods do not help to cure or eliminate pain, they can help you to cope better with pain, improve your quality of life and functioning.    

When we have pain, we naturally avoid certain action and activities that aggravate the pain. We may find ourselves limiting other actions outside of caregiving, e.g., avoiding bending over if we have back pain. At times, we may even have negative thoughts about how the pain will worsen and how our health and life will turn out. These behavioural and cognitive impacts of pain on us, can be better managed through behavioural strategies from psychology.  

Here are some behavioural strategies from psychology to help you cope with pain. 
Please continue to seek medical help for your pain, especially if it is acute pain. 

1.   Reframe Pain
Reframe pain as an experience that can benefit from self-management. Pain is frequently seen as debilitating and this will only make us more helpless. Pain can be effectively managed and this has been backed by research. While it may take a while for you to manage your pain effectively, it is within reach.

2.   Pace Your Activities for the Long Run
It is perfectly normal for you to avoid certain activities to not aggravate your pain. However, in the long run, avoiding activities may lead to muscle wastages and contribute to further inactivity. Build your activities up gradually rather than rush into them or push yourself beyond your limits. For example, if you can only stand for 10 minutes to cook now without aggravating the pain, slowly build it up, and take brief breaks, rather than forcing yourself to stand for 30 minutes.

3.   Plan Small Personal Projects
We often experience a conflict within us when we have pain. We struggle between pursuing activities and reducing engagement in them. Such conflicts can be overcome when we break down the activities into small personal projects that can be realistically executed. For example, instead of cleaning the whole room in a day, it may be more realistic to just clean the cabinet. Instead of showering your loved ones all by yourself, you could ask others to help.  

4.   Pair Your New Activity With An Existing Activity
The chances and willingness of you doing something is higher if it is incorporated into your routine and part of your caregiving. For example, if you like to build up your capacity to perform the activity of taking a walk and have some hesitation to do so, you may want to plan to do it after an existing activity. I will go for a walk with my loved one who is wheelchair bound, after I have fed my loved one dinner.   

5.   Overcome Pain-Related Fear Through Evaluation               
Our fear of pain frequently limits us from engaging in activities. One way to manage this fear is to evaluate our thoughts after we try out these activities. Most of the time, we will find that the thoughts may not be that true. 

Caregiving is challenging. Managing pain is not easy either. You are not alone and the journey can definitely be better. I hope these behavioural strategies from psychology can help you in one way or another. 

Henry Lew Psychologist_Editorial Write Up_2_for website.jpg

Lew Yuen Foong, Henry
Counselling Psychologist
M A (Applied Psychology)
Registered Psychologist and Clinical Supervisor of Singapore Psychological Society

de Moraisa, D., Terassia, M., Inouyea, K., Luchesia, B. M., & Pavarinia, S. C. I. (2016). Chronic pain in elderly caregivers at different levels of frailty. Rev Gaúcha Enferm, 37(4), e60700.
Sharpe, L., Jones, E., Ashton‐James, C. E., Nicholas, M. K., & Refshauge, K. (2020). Necessary components of psychological treatment in pain management programs: A Delphi study. European Journal of Pain, 24(6), 1160-1168.
Terassi, M., Montoya, P., Pavarini, S. C. I., & Hortense, P. (2021). Influence of chronic pain on cognitive performance in elderly caregivers: a longitudinal study. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 74(suppl 2), e20200412.
Terassi, M., Ottaviani, A. C., SOUZA, É. N. D., Fraga, F. J., Montoya, P., Pavarini, S. C. I., & Hortense, P. (2021). Cognition and chronic pain: an analysis on community-dwelling elderly caregivers and non-caregivers. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 79, 201-208.
Vlaeyen, J. W., & Crombez, G. (2020). Behavioral conceptualization and treatment of chronic pain. Annual review of clinical psychology, 16, 187-212.

5 Vegetables to Avoid for Better Sleep in TCM

pexels-sam-lion-5709269_cropped.jpgSleep is an inherent part of healthy living but an activity that is much deprived for many in society today. Getting into sleep and staying asleep seems to be almost unachievable by many people as they struggle to even get through the night in peace. This is especially so for caregivers who may have to break their sleep to serve the person they are caring for during the wee hours of the night. 

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, poor sleep is seen when organs such as the Heart and Kidney are out of balance. The reasons for sleep problems can be multiple and diverse, having mostly been built up over time and thus resulting in an imbalance. 

Lifestyle habits  are one of the factors that we can start to reevaluate and improve to bring about positive changes to sleep quality and pattern. One of which is dietary.

In some ancient traditions, it is advocated that there are certain vegetables or herbs that should be avoided in diets as they can cause overstimulation to the mind and disturb meditative cultivation. From a Traditional Chinese Medicine point of view, it can be seen that these vegetables have properties such as “Warming” or “Hot” and “Pungent” in flavor that can increase the Heart fire and direct energy outwards and upwards. This means that they can result in agitation or excitement to the person and the nervous system. To have good quality sleep, TCM advocates for energy to be consolidated inwards rather than dispersed. Hence to have a better-quality sleep, it is encouraged to avoid, if not cut down, these vegetables in one’s diet (especially at dinner) to keep the nerves and mind peaceful and overall energy grounded.

Here are five of them and their individual properties that may result in the person being more stimulated, which may be brought over into the evening and affect sleep quality.

1.   Onions
Temperature: Warm
Flavor: Pungent
Properties: circulates qi, circulates blood, disperses cold, clears dampness, resolves phlegm

2.   Garlic
Temperature: Hot
Flavor: Pungent, sweet, salty
Properties: circulates qi, clears dampness, eliminates toxins, disperses wind, resolves phlegm

3.   Chives
Temperature: Warm
Flavor: Pungent
Properties: circulates qi, circulates blood

4.   Scallion (Green onions) 
Temperature: Warm
Flavor: Pungent
Properties: disperses cold, eliminates toxins, disperses wind, reduces swelling

5.   Leeks
Temperature: Warm
Flavor: Pungent, sweet, sour
Properties: circulates qi, circulates blood, disperses cold

Dr Lim Xiang Jun, The Modern Traditional Doctor.jpg

Dr Lim Xiang Jun
Senior Consultant TCM Physician
PhD. Acupuncture/Chinese Medicine  
Founder of Dr Xiang Jun, The Modern Traditional Doctor

To find out more about the various services offered by Dr Lim Xiang Jun, please click HERE

Nutrition and Immunity

pexels-nataliya-vaitkevich-7615480.jpgAdequate nutrients and water are vital for the functioning of all your organs, and it is a huge part of keeping your immune system functioning at an optimal level. Think of your immune system as your “personal bodyguards”, protecting you against infections and other harmful elements. 

As we age, our immune system becomes less effective at tackling infections and protecting us against harmful elements as its responses slow down. At the same time, the ageing immune system sometimes fail to resolve an inflammatory process, causing an ongoing, low-grade systemic inflammation. These changes in immune function may contribute to the greater susceptibility of seniors to some infections and inflammatory diseases like cardiovascular, cancer, dementia, and even Type 2 diabetes.

The good news is that adopting the right diet, with moderate physical activities, may help a person maintain healthy immunity into older age.

An optimal immune system is a well-balanced immune system. It is not overactive or underactive. Immune overactivity can result in health conditions like allergies, sensitivities/intolerances, and autoimmune disorders. An underactive immune system is “overwhelmed”, “weakened”, and unable to protect the body from invading pathogens and leaves people vulnerable to infections.

Healthy ways to keep a balanced immune system
Your best line of defense is a healthy lifestyle, and this includes adequate nutrients, hydration, and sleep. A healthy immune system needs good, regular nourishment. It has been long recognised that people who live in poverty and are malnourished are more vulnerable to infectious diseases. 

Here are seven (7) dietary considerations to a healthier immune system
1. Take steps to avoid infections 
Wash your hands regularly. Wash your hands before handling food and eating.

2. Eat a diet that is high in fresh, minimally processed food
Most foods that we eat today has gone through some degree of processing. Processing can be minimal like freezing freshly caught fish and seafoods, frozen vegetables, fruits and berries, and bottled/canned whole vegetables without added salt, sugar, and flavourings. These are all good. 

Some foods have gone through a high degree of processing – ultra-processed foods. These ultra-processed foods tend to be high in sugar, salt, trans fats and artificial flavourings. Examples of ultra-processed foods are crackers and chips, instant cereals, instant noodles, instant soups, packaged bread and buns, processed cheese slices, flavoured yogurt drinks, processed meat products like “hot dogs”, nuggets and processed ham slices. 

As much as possible, avoid these ultra-processed foods and choose the less processed options. The more processed a food is, the less micronutrients the food will contain. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals. Micronutrient deficiencies like Vitamin B6, Vitamin C and Zinc often result in a suppressed immune system and increased susceptibility to infections. 

3. Minimise consumption of ultra-processed foods
Not only do ultra-processed foods contain less nutrients, they also contain high amount of food additives, artificial flavourings and colourings too. Long term, constant exposure to these food chemicals can result in chronic inflammation, overactive or underactive immune system.

4. Limit intake of foods and beverages that are high in sugar 
Limit intake of foods and beverages that are high in sugar like soft drinks, cakes, cookies, ice creams, yogurt drinks and others. Studies have linked high blood sugar levels to an impaired immune response in people with and without diabetes. (1,2)

5. If you drink alcohol
Drink in moderation, which is about 1 glass of wine, 1 can of 330ml beer or 1 shot of spirits for women. For men, the amount is about 2 glasses of wine, 660ml beer or 2 shots of spirits.  Moderate consumption of alcohol has no effect on the immune system of healthy individuals, but overconsumption weakens both the innate and adaptive immune system, and increases susceptibility to infections. (3,4)

6. Eat adequate protein
Protein malnutrition has been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. It is recommended to consume about 1g of protein (or more for active individuals) for every kg of body weight. (5,6). High protein foods include eggs, seafoods, chicken, all types of red and white meat. For vegetarians, legumes, beans and bean-based products like tofu and tempeh are good sources of protein.

7. Make hydration a priority! 
Water carries nutrients and other important components to the immune system and helps to remove metabolic waste from our organs daily. If not flushed out, these metabolic wastes have the potential to become toxic and weaken the immune system. It is recommended to have at least 1.5 litres of fluid daily. Fluid intake can be plain water, herbal tea, vegetable juices or from water-rich foods like watermelon and broth. Dehydration is common among seniors. Scheduling frequent small drinks and incorporating water-rich foods into their snacks, can help to improve overall fluid intake. 


Ms Katherine Khoo
Nutritional Therapist
Aman Wellness Pte Ltd

1. Acute hyperglycemia impairs IL‐6 expression in humans. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2016 Mar; 4(1): 91–97. Published online 2016 Jan 19. doi: 10.1002/iid3.97.
2. Type 2 Diabetes and its Impact on the Immune System. Curr Diabetes Rev 2020;16(5):442-449. doi: 10.2174/1573399815666191024085838.
3. Influence of alcohol consumption on immunological status: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S50-3. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601486.
4. Alcohol and the Immune System. Alcohol Res. 2015; 37(2): 153–155. PMCID: PMC4590612.
5. Amino acids and immune function. Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug;98(2):237-52. doi: 10.1017/S000711450769936X. Epub 2007 Apr 3
6. Effect of dietary protein and amino acids on immune function. Crit Care Med. 1990 Feb;18(2 Suppl):S86-93.


Physiotherapy Management of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition where the internal bone structure changes and reduces in density. It can result in patients succumbing to low-impact, fragility fractures.

Osteoporotic fractures may lead to poorer health, more disability, and a significant reduction in quality of life. Patients with osteoporosis need calcium as well as vitamin D for better bone health, and vitamin D is synthesised in the skin by exposure to sunlight. However, many seniors remain at home, and thus may be deprived of sunlight and exercise, putting them at risk of osteoporosis.

Other Causes
There are many contributing factors associated with osteoporosis. These include:
• Decline in bone mass with ageing
• Sedentary lifestyle with little or no physical activities 
• Impaired hormone production (such as oestrogen deficiency)
• Prolonged use of medications.
• Low calcium intake or absorption. Excessive alcohol consumption can decrease the body's ability to absorb calcium.

Tips to Prevent Osteoporosis
Other than taking medication, it is also important to include good nutrition (including adequate amounts of vitamin D and calcium), limit alcohol intake, smoking cessation, and daily exercise prescribed by a physiotherapist.

Physiotherapy management of individuals with osteoporosis and osteopenia (osteopenia is when your bones are weaker than normal but not so far gone that they break easily, which is the hallmark of osteoporosis) should include:

1.   Weight-bearing exercises
Bone responds to the load applied to it by strengthening its structure. Physically active individuals typically have higher bone density than those who have a sedentary lifestyle.
Exercises such as walking, skipping, or hopping, has been shown to maintain or improve bone density in this population.
For individuals with low bone mass, it may be safer to begin exercise training by walking and hopping in a swimming pool with the water at chest or shoulder level. The buoyancy of the water helps with cushioning the impact of these exercises on the bone.

2.    Strengthening exercises
Resistance training or strengthening using body weight, free weights, or resistance bands, have also been shown to maintain or improve bone density around the body parts that are being exercised. Lifting your legs against gravity or moving your limbs against water resistance also helps with strengthening the limbs and have positive effects on bone density. Strengthening exercises are also important to prevent or reduce back pain.

3.   Balance exercises and Functional exercises (Flexibility and strengthening through whole body movements)
Fall prevention is important as falls often result in fractures in individuals with low bone density. Exercises that improve balance and postural control are therefore important to reduce the risk of falls.
Functional exercises such as Tai Chi and Pilates can help improve the individual's overall physical function and postural control.

4.    Postural exercises
Exercises can help to improve posture and prevent postural changes such as thoracic kyphosis (hunchback). These exercises also reduce joint stiffness and strengthen muscles that help the individual maintain good posture.
Individuals with a risk of spinal fracture should avoid high impact or repetitive forward bending and/or twisting exercises as they place high amounts of pressure on the spine.
Alternatively, the focus can be on strengthening of the muscles at the back of the body. Some examples include neck exercises like chin tucks, upper back extensions, shoulder blade squeezes, and hip extensions.

5.   Education and Awareness
Individuals with osteoporosis or osteopenia should:
• Avoid falls by
  - Getting their eyesight checked regularly
  - Having good lighting on stairs
  - Removing cluttered furniture or rugs that can cause trips and falls
  - Wearing well-fitted shoes to prevent falls
• Follow a healthy diet that includes enough calcium and Vitamin D
• Avoid heavy lifting – enlist the help of others or consider home delivery grocery shopping.
Osteoporosis can be diagnosed and prevented with effective treatments before fractures occur. The prevention, detection, and treatment of osteoporosis is important. Seek help from a healthcare professional to receive appropriate care.

Junhong Lim Jaden Physio.jpg

Jaden Lim
Principal Physiotherapist &
ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Physiologist
Rehab & Beyond Pte Ltd


To find out more about the various services offered by Rehab & Beyond Pte Ltd please click HERE

CWA 17th Anniversary - 'OF CHANGE & HOPE'

AnniversaryBannner600x100 (1).gif

This month marks the 17th Anniversary since the Caregiving Welfare Association (CWA) has been set up, so that we can recognise, support and empower caregivers of the silver generation. Change is inevitable in life, and over the years, the climate of caregiving and even CWA has evolved. I would like to take this moment to revisit the importance of caring for our caregivers and the elderly, and reflect on the role that all of us have to play in caregiving despite a climate of change. 

What are some of these many changes? Over the years, families have gradually become smaller, and so have living spaces. The responsibility of care naturally becomes distributed amongst less people, and it is increasingly more difficult to expect the family unit to be the sole source of support for both caregivers and the elderly. The elderly also often live alone or with a domestic worker, which can further worsen problems of isolation. More resources also need to be put in to maintain environmental safety and monitoring. Over the years, we have become increasingly digitized, which is a double-edged sword - for some, having to deal with technology can be bewildering and upsetting. On the other hand, technology is already increasingly being used to help with aspects of safety monitoring of the elderly, timely access to medical care, medication reminders and keeping socially connected, among many others. 

Challenges that Caregivers face

The rigours of life sometimes put us in a place where we compartmentalize ourselves in terms of work, personal commitments and family. For a caregiver however, the role of caregiving remains overarching amidst all the other duties and daily activities such as juggling with jobs, children and social activities. Unsurprisingly, this often leads to tremendous difficulties in many areas for the caregiver. It is important therefore that caregivers should have the necessary support systems in place, so that they do not need to feel like they are alone in this labour of love. 

Caregiver burnout is not uncommon, and can lead to difficult emotions such as anger, resentment and guilt over our loved ones. It is very often a lonely undertaking, and many are unaware of the vast breadth of resources and help that are available. Left unaddressed, these difficult emotions can negatively impact the emotional health of caregivers, predisposing them to conditions such as anxiety, depression and physical health problems. 

Caregiving is also physically taxing for families. Many of our seniors have mobility problems, and require assistance in transfers, walking, showering and even eating. These can be further complicated by medical issues, such as frequent toileting in the middle of the night or day-night reversal symptoms in dementia. Caregivers often find themselves physically exhausted and lacking even basic sleep, and many end up having to forgo self-care and their own social interactions as a result. Unfortunately, these further add on and perpetuate a vicious cycle leading to worsening caregiver stress and burnout. 

Finally, caregiving can lead to significant financial strain. In addition to regular expenses such as medications and doctors' visits, there can be other unexpected financial expenditures such as medical emergencies. Some of the elderly also require physical modifications or mobility aids, or even dedicated transport services. These add up to significant amounts over time. 

Changing to better support our Caregivers

CWA as an organisation has also evolved over time. CWA was formed many years ago (initially known as Caregiving Counselling Welfare Association before our name change in 2010) in order to be a focal resource to support caregivers and provide them with resources and knowledge. In that same year, the Caregiver Support Group was set up so that caregivers can come together to share and learn how other caregivers have coped with similar difficulties.  

Over the years, CWA has expanded the scope of our services to direct eldercare services to help them age better, as maintaining the independence of seniors is another important aspect of alleviating the stress on caregivers. In addition, avoiding premature or unnecessary institutionalisation often provides a higher quality of life and medical outcomes for the seniors. 
One key challenge many caregivers face is having the practical help they need at home, and therefore the CWA Home Nursing Care and the Eldersitter Program were initiated in 2013 and 2015 respectively. These programs were later consolidated under CWA's Home Personal Care service in order to provide comprehensive and personalised care that fits the needs of the elderly and their families. Under the Home Personal Care service, CWA has focused on training local Community Caregivers who are able to communicate effectively with the seniors that they help to care for. Currently, the Home Personal Care service covers a wide range of services including assistance with basic care and toileting, companionship and social engagement, and accompanying them for appointments. In short, these are tasks that our Community Caregivers and volunteers take over from time to time, so that the family caregivers can have periods of respite to focus on other things that matter as well. 

We have also focused on public education and raising public awareness through forums such as the Annual Caregivers' Week since its inauguration in 2016. In addition to talks, the Caregivers' Week also consists of workshops that help caregivers alleviate stress and frustration. We have also launched the Community Outreach Program where our volunteers conduct home visits to identify isolated and vulnerable seniors and encourage them to be
socially engaged through the activities provided at CWA Centre. In Nov 2017, CWA launched the Caregivers' Sanctuary located at the National University Hospital Medical Centreto bridge the transition from hospital care to home care. 

Unexpected Changes and Changes of the future

In the last year or so, one significant aspect of change was brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our generous supporters and donors have helped us tremendously in raising funds that keep our programs running, via different means such as online donation platforms. Our staff and volunteers have also tapped on available resources such as making periodic calls to seniors under our care, to keep in touch and to ensure that any emergent needs are met. For Caregivers’ Week 2020, we adapted to the times by bringing the event online instead. One aspect that the pandemic has highlighted is the importance of this human touch and connectedness. In the course of my clinical work, I have seen unfortunate seniors that have suffered and deteriorated as a result of reduced physical contact and social activities. This really brings to light a magic beyond what we do in science and medicine - the importance of having caregivers and services as a part of their lives. 

It is my hope that CWA’s services will continue to evolve for the better, even as things around us change over time. But at the same time, we need to preserve the core of why we do what we do, and from time to time revisit our mission to address the needs of both caregivers and seniors. Despite any changes that happen down the road, we will still strive to meet their unmet needs, tap judiciously on new and emerging resources such as technology, while maintaining the core essence of a human connection to let caregivers and seniors know that they are not alone in this journey. 

Dr Tan Hong Yee_CWA.jpg

Dr Tan Hong Yee
Caregiving Welfare Association



“Human beings today are making demands on their bodies and their minds that are in conflict with their biological nature.” ~From Sleep Thieves, by Stanley Coren 

We live in a go, go, go society. Energy drinks, coffee, and pastries have become the answer to sleepiness these days. We do not listen to our bodies when they tell us that we need to slow down and to relax. Our views on sleep have changed since the Industrial Revolution and especially with the invention of the lightbulb. 

Now, we have all kinds of sunscreen and lotions that suppress the body’s natural production of melatonin. As a result, contributing to the body producing insufficient melatonin that is supposed to facilitate the transition to sleep. Our social lifestyle has evolved with the times with too many options when it comes to entertainment and the types of caffeinated drinks on the menu. Hence, being too active does contributes to how we choose to spend too much time staying up late and thus losing much of our sleep. With all these that are happening, it seems like we do not make sleep as a priority anymore.

Sleep is like the holy grail of all. Every single night it turns back the clock of time on us. Through sleep, it helps to repair our damaged cells and it rebalances our body’s hormones (Peterson & Werneburg, 2018). If all these are not occurring, without the natural process of healing to take place through sufficient sleep, we will be aging much faster because of all the damages that the body is undergoing.   

The other thing sleep does for us, is to make us smarter. It cleans out our brain every night from toxins so when we wake up, our brain is on full steam ahead and it can serve us at its best. If these bad toxins are not cleaned out, it may lead to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (Hamilton, 2013).

Sleep does not just keep us from being cranky, moody, and grumpy but it helps us to cope with stress and what life is hurling at us. Most of us, we are being thrown a great deal of things, it might be the challenges which we face at work, and even back home with our loved ones. It could also be some personal struggles which we may need to tackle from time to time. For some of us especially now during the Covid19 pandemic, the news that we read or hear every day could be quite depressing or even stressful. 

With sleep, when we dream in our REM (rapid eye movement) sleep (Cleveland Clinic, 2020; Macmillan, 2017), we have a safe zone - our dreams are like a playground for our mind to throw out everything that we could not cope with (Suni, 2020), or did not digest during the day because maybe we are just too busy, or perhaps it was uncomfortable thinking about it. So when we dream, we have our mind digesting all those things. It is similar to cells being repaired; our mind is also being repaired through sleep (Eugene & Masiak, 2015). This helps us to be more resilient, to keep us going and to make us happy.

If we do not have sufficient sleep, we can become not just grumpy, but more depressed and anxious about how we view our life situation or how we take on challenges overtime (Harvard Health Publishing, 2009). If these sounds quite familiar to us, then we may want to consider the consequences of having insufficient sleep. Like how we spend time in building up a good relationship with others, having sufficient sleep also requires deliberate effort and time being set aside to establish a good relationship. 

Here are three things which we could do to love our sleep more.

Managing our stressors throughout the day is important and not just in the morning or at night as this can affect our sleep. Journal your thoughts when we have something on our mind instead of compiling them until night time, before dumping it all out and expecting it to take care of itself.

Alternatively, penning down our thoughts can be an example of how we symbolically put our worries/ stresses down on paper (Davidson, 2015), so that we do not need to keep thinking about it when it is time for us to sleep. We could always address it in the morning or when the time comes. 

Just like our car dashboard, when we see the light flashing, we will take our car to the mechanics right away. Hence, if we are not sleeping well, please listen to what our body is trying to hint to us and then try to find out what is the real problem. Understand the reason(s) why we may not be sleeping properly.

Most of the time we love our sleep, but we can be very frustrated with it and we can get angry with it. Write a letter to sleep. It might sound crazy, but first we can write a complaint letter to sleep. Telling sleep that we are so angry with it because it is never there for us when we need it (i.e. when we struggle to fall asleep). Our complaint could also be that sleep wakes us up early when we are still tired. If this is happening to us, then just tell sleep that we are frustrated about it. 

We could also try to write a love letter. Telling sleep how much we miss it. How much we love that feeling when we get enough of it when we wake up the next morning. We could also share with sleep that it has been there for us throughout the night, and it is because of sleep, we now feel fantastic like a superman/ superwoman. Telling sleep how much we look better and able to think smarter just because of it and we will miss it when it is not there. It might seem silly, but it is an exercise that is amazing to do.

All in all, when we learn how to improve our relationship with sleep, our body, mind, and health will benefit from it.  

Thank you for having a great relationship with sleep.

Zoe Chu_Apr 2021.jpg

Author: Zoe Chu
Founder of Your Sleep BFF

Reading articles: 


Music Listening for Health and Well-Being

Photo by Jisu Han on Unsplash.jpg
Every year on 1st March, we celebrate World Music Therapy Day, உலக இசை சிகிச்சை நாள், Hari Terapi Muzik Sedunia, and/or 世界音乐治疗日 to honor music therapists worldwide and highlight how music can make life better and more fulfilling. 

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Caregiving Welfare Association for allowing me to share about music therapy and how music can promote health and well-being.

The Association for Music Therapy (Singapore) defines music therapy as the “scientific use of music interventions within a therapeutic relationship towards observable or measurable functional, educational, rehabilitative or well-being outcomes by a credentialed professional.” Music therapy is administered by a trained professional and may include singing, listening to music, creating music, moving to music, and playing instruments. Research has shown that music therapy is effective in promoting movement, increasing motivation, and providing emotional support. As a board-certified music therapist, I am passionate about music and its ability to help individuals express their emotions, learn more about themselves, and enhance their quality of life.

Music for health and well-being is broad and encompasses many different aspects (Skånland, 2013). On one end of the spectrum, there is music therapy, an established healthcare profession whereby a trained professional delivers specially designed music interventions to work on specific target goal areas. For example, a music therapist may design a music and movement program targeted at promoting physical activity. On the other end of the spectrum, there are everyday uses of music for health whereby anyone may use music in their day-to-day lives. Common examples include listening to music to get oneself pumped up while exercising at the gym or to simply pass the time while commuting to work.

Research has shown that music listening has many health benefits. Listening to music can improve sleep, increase memory skills, elevate mood, help cope with daily stressors, and enhance overall quality of life and well-being (Batt-Rawden et al., 2005; Chan et al., 2009, 2012; Finlay & Rogers, 2015; Lai & Good, 2006; Mammarella et al., 2007; Sung et al., 2010). As an example, one participant shared that by dividing her large collection of CDs into playlists, she could use music to manage her emotions and overcome grief after having lost her husband (Ruud, 2013). 

Ageing is commonly associated with a wide range of health issues, including decreasing memory skills, increasing loneliness, and declining physical and emotional health (Cornwell & Waite, 2009; Depp et al., 2010; Fiori et al., 2006). In Singapore, older adults reported feeling lonely and more depressed (Ge et al., 2019; Li et al., 2015; Subramaniam et al., 2016). Caregivers of older adults also face similar challenges (Malhotra et al., 2012). Thus, music can be a resource to improve physical health and quality of life (Coffman, 2002).

Listening to Music Mindfully
Now that we know that music can benefit us tremendously, allow me to share a music listening strategy – listening to music mindfully. In addition to simply listening to music, we will incorporate mindfulness elements. Mindfulness includes focusing on the immediate experience with curiosity, openness, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004).

Step 1: Pick a Song
Pick a song that you may like but have not heard for too many times. For example, pick a song from your favorite artist but not one that you are overly familiar with. Some additional suggestions include a song that is not too fast or too slow, and/or instrumentation that is not overwhelming.

Step 2: Set Up the Experience
Use a suitable device and app to play the song. Program it to stop right after the selected song is played. Use noise-cancelling headphones or high-quality speakers, if possible. Sit comfortably in a chair with both feet on the ground, or lie down on a yoga mat or bed.

Step 3: Play the Song
Just before you press play, take a few breaths in and out, drawing your attention to your breathing. Once ready, press play and bring your full attention to the experience of listening.

Step 4: Return to the Present
Once the song ends, allow yourself a minute to reflect on what you have just heard. Reflect on what your body felt, the emotions you experienced, and the thoughts that it evoked. Then bring your focus back to your breathing and return to the present moment.

You can also refer to this link for instructions on how to listen to music mindfully: 

Whether you are an older adult or a caregiver, I hope that this simple music listening strategy will help you to relieve stress, reconnect with yourself, and live life to the fullest. As civil rights activist Maya Angelou (1928 – 2014) wrote, “Music was my refuge. I could crawl into the space between the notes and curl my back to loneliness.”


Mr Jonathan Tang
Music Therapist - Board
Certified MA, MT-BC
Extraordinary People Limited


Caregiver's Gift of Love

Life is a journey of many different phases. We start off as infants, totally dependent on our parents for all our needs, and as we become adults, the circle of life puts us in the reverse role as caregivers be it to our children or our aging relatives. 

Very much like the seasonality of weather, for which we are blessed with dry hot or cold wet, it is how we adapt to the changing seasons that best prepares us for what is to come. 

For the new parents to be, the excitement and trepidation that comes just before the arrival of the new born, be it baby shower parties, shopping for baby accessories, prams, clothes makes the anticipation of their new caregiving responsibilities a joyous and in many ways a celebration of life.

Conversely when a loved one is about to be discharged home from hospital, the process of welcoming home our family member is often greeted with anxiety. The major difference is time and preparation. For many of us, such situations are jolts that shakes up our daily routine with little or no warning and together with the loss of what to do next, compounds the fear and anxiety of what is to come.

Caregiving is stressful when we are ill equipped with the understanding as to how to cope with the care needs of our loved ones. Expectant mothers have the luxury of time to prepare their homes, schedules, attend ante-natal classes and have themselves mentally and emotionally well prepared before their big day arrives. 

Whereas for those caregivers who are thrust into a situation of dealing with a loved one who was previously independent and mobile, and now has dependency needs for daily living and mobility issues, is often cited as a great source of stress.

It is Okay not to be Okay
This is the first step of acknowledgement that is probably the most overlooked or denied. How often have we asked our relatives or friends in such situations if they are okay and the answer has been i am fine. We have to recognise that for those that depend on us, we are their world, and if anything happens to their caregivers, their world changes far more dramatically. They will want for us as their caregiver to be available in mind, body and spirit for them. This does not necessarily mean we have to be at their disposable 24/7, but instead we offer them our reassurance that they will be well looked after. 

Ask for help
Caregiving can take a toil on one's physical, mental, emotional, financial resources. It is not uncommon to hear of caregiver's burnout which in its most tragic form can lead to physical harm either to the caregiver or recipient. It does not have to lead to this. What can we do about it, here are some suggestions.

a.    Get help
It sounds simple enough and intuitive but sadly this is often the last resort. In fact it should be the very first thing any caregiver should do especially when they are starting their caregiving journey. Don't be shy, caregiving affects every family unit equally regardless of social status, ethnicity, education background. Do seek out support groups for information or referrals that can direct you to the resource help that benefits you most.

Granted that in Singapore our social service schemes are many and can be difficult to navigate, but one does not have to do it by yourself. There are many social agencies including the Caregiving Welfare Association that can be your guide through this.

b.   Give yourself a caregiver time out 
We all need a break whether we are studying, working, exercising, the human body is not designed to work continuously. Learning to let go and entrust the care of your loved ones to someone else or a respite facility should not invite feelings of guilt or inadequacy. It is true that the care recipient may develop a dependency syndrome on the caregiver, one advise to avoid this is through socialisation. 

c.    Join a support group
Social isolation is real in caregiving, studies have shown that recipients do feel isolated despite being around family members as they lose the human connection of their social circles. The same holds true for caregivers. Support groups are a tremendous source of solace and reassurance especially speaking to more experienced caregivers with similar situations.

d.    Take time to treat yourself
A simple break such as a meal at your favourite food stall, shopping for yourself, a simple leisurely activity that helps you distract from the daily routine are all good small breaks, in simpler terms just carve out some 'me' time for yourself.

e.   Have faith
If you have a religious faith, it is well recognised that keeping your spiritual well being does help recenter your thoughts and caregivers of faith generally cope better. An alternative to faith is meditation as a means to calm both mind and spirit to further pacify a caregiver's inner peace.

Caregiving can be difficult, it will stress and test our boundaries of patience, resilience, but despite this there are also many examples and positive stories from caregivers that their time spent with their loved ones were the most treasured and fulfilling periods of their lives. It starts with the caregiver taking time to love themself in equal measure as the ones they are looking after. As the saying goes, it takes a village to raise a child, likewise for the elderly, it takes that same village and some good drivers to help you navigate the caregiving route.


Dr Daniel Tan
Board Member and
Editorial Sub-Committee: Editor-in-Chief  
Caregiving Welfare Association


Share your caregiver's story

If you wish to contribute to the caregiving community for seniors, you may share your stories on this page. Please email your article to us at . 

Kindly note that your article should not be more than 800 words. Prior to us sharing your article on this page, the CWA editorial team will need to approve your contribution first.